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Results for entries tagged with "Cardiovascular

Gene Therapy R&D

Genetic transfection of cell types to elucidate pathways involved in specific pathologies requires ongoing assessment of transfection efficiencly to ensure that modification was successful and subsequent assays performed are valid.

Colony Analysis

Undifferentiated embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells will form aggregates or "colonies" in vitro prior to differentiation. Evaluation of colony shape, area, cell density, rate of growth/proliferation, migration, etc. can be important factors in selection of an appropriate cells for subsequent differentiation and expansion for transplantation or bioassay development.

Bright Field Immuno-Staining

Non-fluorescent, immuno-staining of histological tissue for specific antigens generally involves enzymatic subtrates that oxidize compounds such as diaminobenzidine (DAB) to precipitate a brown chromogenic product. Unfortunately, "brown" color is composed of a mixture of hues not easily segmented or characterized from background.

Shock-Induced Electroporation

Internal defibrillation shock while often necessary can permanently damage the heart via disruption of cell membranes (electroporation). To study the spatial extent of cell death and tissue damage of such a shock, a coil shock electrode was inserted into the right ventricle of Langendorff-perfused rabbit heart.

Multi-modality Volumetric Registration

Spatial registration of longitudinal volumes and subsequent analysis can enable morphometric tracking of implants to evaluate degradation/biocompatibility or assess response of various pathologies/phenotypes to therapeutics or genetic manipulation.

Cell Proliferation/Lineage Analysis

Cellular division and lineage tracing analysis is an extremely complex problem with respect to image analysis but essential for cell fate assessment and phenotyping following genetic manipulation or drug treatment.

Filopodial and Ruffle Analysis

Images of live endothelial cells seeded subconfluently on a glass-bottom dish were acquired every 3 minutes over 160 minutes using DIC imaging on an inverted wide-field microscope.

Confocal Time-Lapse Imaging of Actin Ruffles

Mechanics of endothelial cell (EC) migration have been extensively studied to elucidate mechanisms/pathways involved wound healing and neovascularization. It is widely accepted that actin, a major cytoskeletal component, plays a crucial role EC translocation.

Cell Migration Tracking Analysis

Endothelial cell (EC) migration is a vital process in wound healing, tissue maintenance, and neovascularization. As such, a number of in-vitro migration assays are available to assess migratory potential of candidate compounds to either promote migration for faster wound healing or inhibit migration to prevent vascularization of tumors.

Automated Fundus Image Analysis

Fundus photography of the eye enables visualization of the retina, optic disc, fovea, and macula. Additionally it is the only place on the body where microcirculation can be observed non-invasively. A number of pathologies can be evaluated in fundus images including diabetic retinopathy, AMD (dry and wet), various tumors, glaucoma, vascular occlusion, etc.

Retinal Vascularization in Small Animal Models

A number of ophthalmic pathologies can be studied in small animals (rats and mice) to assess progression of disease following drug or gene therapy. This approach calls for the perfusion of retinal vasculature with a fluorescent dye, animal sacrifice, and "flat-mounting" of the explanted retina onto a slide (four radial incisions).

Tube Formation Analysis

Endothelial cells (EC), when provided with a 3D extracellular matrix substrate and appropriately supplemented growth media, will self-organize into a network of capillary-like "tubes." This in-vitro, "tube formation" assay, is commonly used to assess ability of compounds to stimulate or inhibit angiogenesis.

Cell/Vessel Proximity Assay

Since tumor survival is strongly dependent on vascularization, there are number of anticancer drugs that specifically target vessel growth. A subset of these drugs bind to growth factors (i.e. VEGF) and prevent them from binding to receptors that initiate angiogenesis cascades.

Adipocyte Characterization

Morphometric analysis of fat cells or adipocytes within specific organs enables quantitative assessment of various pathologies or compounds that affect metabolic pathways. Unfortunately, most labs will perform such analysis with multiple observers manually delineating each adipocyte in a given field-of-view.

3D Vascular Analysis

Contrast based vascular imaging and analysis can provide an number of key metrics for human pathology diagnosis or animal model studies including vessel occlusion, blood pressure (vessel dilation), angiogenesis (tumor formation), vascular attenuation or regression, and vascular leakage.

TEM Collagen Fibril Morphometry

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a valuable imaging tool for nanometer scale assessment of extracellular matrix organization and localization/morphology of subcellular structures. As an example, collagen fibrils in a genetically modified animal model were imaged using TEM for evaluation of collagen morphology and spacing/packing.