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Results for entries tagged with "Bright Field Microscope"

Histological Bone Morphometry

Traditional 2D bone morphometric analyses utilize hard-tissue histological sectioning and evaluation of bone cores (human or animal) stained with Toluidine Blue and embedded in PMMA.

Large field-of-view Analysis of Fracture Callus Healing

In order to assess the extent of healing following non-union fracture in response to various therapies (PTH, bisphosphonates, etc), the callus sites of histologically stained (i.e. Safranin-O/FAST Green) and sectioned long bones can be digitized using a high resolution, large field-of-view microscope and subsequently evaluated for thickness, area, and tissue composition (fibrous, bone, cartilagenous tissue content) in a quati.

Cellular Particle Exclusion Assay

Cellular matrix production is crucial in the formation, maintenance, and repair of organs and tissues. While there are many dyes and antibodies available to study matrix production in-vitro, such reporters can generally only be applied as an endpoint tool as they require cell fixation and do not support live cell study.

Gene Therapy R&D

Genetic transfection of cell types to elucidate pathways involved in specific pathologies requires ongoing assessment of transfection efficiencly to ensure that modification was successful and subsequent assays performed are valid.

Colony Analysis

Undifferentiated embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells will form aggregates or "colonies" in vitro prior to differentiation. Evaluation of colony shape, area, cell density, rate of growth/proliferation, migration, etc. can be important factors in selection of an appropriate cells for subsequent differentiation and expansion for transplantation or bioassay development.

Bright Field Immuno-Staining

Non-fluorescent, immuno-staining of histological tissue for specific antigens generally involves enzymatic subtrates that oxidize compounds such as diaminobenzidine (DAB) to precipitate a brown chromogenic product. Unfortunately, "brown" color is composed of a mixture of hues not easily segmented or characterized from background.

Shock-Induced Electroporation

Internal defibrillation shock while often necessary can permanently damage the heart via disruption of cell membranes (electroporation). To study the spatial extent of cell death and tissue damage of such a shock, a coil shock electrode was inserted into the right ventricle of Langendorff-perfused rabbit heart.

MEMs Cell Sorting

In order to assess the ability of a MEMs device under a magnetic field to sort cells tagged with metallic markers, a customized set of algorithms was developed to automatically segment and count cells in time-lapse videos.

Cell Proliferation/Lineage Analysis

Cellular division and lineage tracing analysis is an extremely complex problem with respect to image analysis but essential for cell fate assessment and phenotyping following genetic manipulation or drug treatment.

Filopodial and Ruffle Analysis

Images of live endothelial cells seeded subconfluently on a glass-bottom dish were acquired every 3 minutes over 160 minutes using DIC imaging on an inverted wide-field microscope.

Confocal Time-Lapse Imaging of Actin Ruffles

Mechanics of endothelial cell (EC) migration have been extensively studied to elucidate mechanisms/pathways involved wound healing and neovascularization. It is widely accepted that actin, a major cytoskeletal component, plays a crucial role EC translocation.

Cell Migration Tracking Analysis

Endothelial cell (EC) migration is a vital process in wound healing, tissue maintenance, and neovascularization. As such, a number of in-vitro migration assays are available to assess migratory potential of candidate compounds to either promote migration for faster wound healing or inhibit migration to prevent vascularization of tumors.

Retinal Vascularization in Small Animal Models

A number of ophthalmic pathologies can be studied in small animals (rats and mice) to assess progression of disease following drug or gene therapy. This approach calls for the perfusion of retinal vasculature with a fluorescent dye, animal sacrifice, and "flat-mounting" of the explanted retina onto a slide (four radial incisions).

Tube Formation Analysis

Endothelial cells (EC), when provided with a 3D extracellular matrix substrate and appropriately supplemented growth media, will self-organize into a network of capillary-like "tubes." This in-vitro, "tube formation" assay, is commonly used to assess ability of compounds to stimulate or inhibit angiogenesis.

Automated Histological Analysis of Cartilage Defects

Sports-related injuries can produce large focal defects in articular joint cartilage that often lead to delamination of surrounding healthy cartilage and eventual degeneration of the joint. To study this process in an animal model, a pendulum was swung onto the medial condyles of a rabbit femur. After a predefined length of time, the rabbit was sacrificed and the impact region was explanted, sectioned, and stained with Safranin-O.

Automated Histological Analysis of Osseointegration

The structure and chemical composition of bone scaffolds or implants will impact their ability to promote bone in-growth and consequently dictate stability of the implant. Small animal models are often utilized for evaluation of bone in-growth in candidate scaffolds. Scaffolds are generally implanted into proximal sites of long bones for a fixed period of time.

In-vivo Histological Bone Growth Assay

Traditional methods of in-vivo bone growth evaluation in small animal models utilize longitudinal micro-CT imaging. Unfortunately, live animal imaging requires low radiation dose protocols that limit spatial resolution to ~20 um which is inadequate for small animals (particularly adults) whose bone growth rates are on the order of a few um/day.

Cell/Vessel Proximity Assay

Since tumor survival is strongly dependent on vascularization, there are number of anticancer drugs that specifically target vessel growth. A subset of these drugs bind to growth factors (i.e. VEGF) and prevent them from binding to receptors that initiate angiogenesis cascades.

Adipocyte Characterization

Morphometric analysis of fat cells or adipocytes within specific organs enables quantitative assessment of various pathologies or compounds that affect metabolic pathways. Unfortunately, most labs will perform such analysis with multiple observers manually delineating each adipocyte in a given field-of-view.